Tag Archives: hiv infection

HIV Prevention And HIV Vaccine

What is in the future for  HIV Vaccine?

Early advances in preventing HIV transmission resulted from educational programs describing how transmission occurs and providing barrier protection for those exposed to genital secretions and new needles or bleach to those exposed to blood by sharing needles. Despite these efforts, new infection in both the developed and developing worlds has continued at high rates.

Historically, the greatest success in preventing viral transmission has resulted from the development of preventative vaccines. Unfortunately, decades of research to develop an HIV vaccine has led to little hope for success. While the vaccine which has been developed demonstrated only limited evidence of protection, research is under way to further explore what can be learned for future vaccine development from this modest success. Continue reading

HIV and Pregnancy

Treatment of Pregnant HIV-Infected Patients:

Pregnant women with HIV infection  should be offered therapy based on the same virologic, immunologic, and clinical parameters as non pregnant women.

The goal of therapy is to provide maximal virologic suppression to optimize the health of the mother and minimize transmission of virus to the fetus. The choice of drugs and the timing of initiating therapy may, however, be influenced by the pregnancy.

Most antiretroviral drugs are safe in pregnant women; to the extent they have been studied. Many of the toxicities caused by antiretroviral agents may contribute to parallel complications of pregnancy, (e.g., the hyperglycemia associated with protease inhibitors may exacerbate pregnancy-associated diabetes). There are specific concerns regarding the use of nucleosides during pregnancy, especially stavudine and didanosine, in view of their association with hepatic steatosis and lactic acidosis in several pregnant women. There is also particular concern about the association of efavirenz with fetal abnormalities in monkeys. Finally, combination ART may be associated with an increased risk for preterm delivery. Antiretroviral regimens must be chosen carefully and monitored.

Transmission of HIV from mother to fetus has been observed at all maternal plasma HIV RNA levels. There seem to be a correlation between the HIV plasma RNA copy number and the risk of transmission. Clinical trials have shown that ART can greatly reduce the likelihood that virus will be transmitted to the fetus or infant. Zidovudine monotherapy and nevirapine monotherapy have been most carefully studied, and both seem to be safe for the mother and fetus and are effective in substantially reducing the rate of maternal-fetal transmission. However, monotherapy is no longer indicated in settings in which combination ART is feasible. Moreover, single-dose nevirapine monotherapy can produce HIV resistance because of the long half-life of nevirapine. It is logical to use combination ART regimens for treating the mother to lower her viral load effectively and produce durable viral suppression.

Current guidelines indicate that combination ART, usually including zidovudine, should be recommended for infected women who meet the standard criteria for treatment or who have HIV RNA levels greater than 1000 copies/mL, regardless of immunologic or clinical status. Women who are in the first trimester of pregnancy may prefer delaying therapy until after 10 to 12 weeks of gestation if they are concerned about the teratogenicity of drugs administered during the early part of their pregnancy. . Prior to antiviral therapy, the risk of HIV transmission from an infected mother to her newborn was approximately 25%-35%. By giving ZDV after the first trimester of pregnancy, then intravenously during the delivery process, and then after delivery to the newborn for six weeks showed a reduction in the risk of transmission to less than 10%. Women who are not receiving zidovudine or nevirapine but who have HIV plasma RNA levels less than 1000 copies/mL seem to have a low risk of transmitting HIV to their offspring. There are no clear guidelines about how best to manage pregnant women whose virus is resistant to zidovudine and nevirapine.

All HIV-infected pregnant women should be managed by an obstetrician with experience in dealing with HIV-infected women. Maximal obstetric precautions to minimize transmission of the HIV virus, such as avoiding scalp monitors and minimizing labor after rupture of the uterine membranes, should be observed. In addition, the potential use of an elective Caesarean section (C-section) should be discussed, particularly in those women without good viral control of their HIV infection where the risk of transmission may be increased. Breastfeeding should be avoided if alternative nutrition for the infant is available since HIV transmission can occur by this route.

Hepatitis B: how is Hepatitis B Transmitted?

How Hepatitis B is transmitted?

The Hepatitis B virus is known as a blood-borne virus because it is transmitted from one person to another via blood or fluids contaminated with blood. Another important route of transmission is from an infected mother to a newborn child, which occurs during or shortly after birth. It is called vertical transmission.

  • Direct contract with blood may occur through the use of dirty needles during illicit drug use, accidental needle pricks experienced by healthcare workers, or contact with blood through other means. Semen, which contain small amounts of blood, and saliva that is contaminated with blood also carry the virus.
  • The virus may be transmitted when these fluids come in contact with broken skin or a mucous membrane (in the mouth, genital organs, or rectum) of an uninfected person. Continue reading

Side effects of HIV therapy:

There are many potential side effects associated with antiviral therapies. The most common ones for each class of drug are summarized below.


Most NRTIs can cause mild nausea and loose stools. In general, these symptoms resolve with time.

ZDV has been associated with decreased production of blood cells by the bone marrow, most often causing anemia, and occasionally hyperpigmentation (most often of the nails).

D4T can damage nerves and cause peripheral neuropathy, a neurological condition with numbness and/or tingling of the feet and hands, and inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) that causes nausea, vomiting, and mid upper abdominal pain.

DDI also causes pancreatitis and, to a lesser extent, peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy can become permanent and painful, and pancreatitis can be life-threatening if therapy is not discontinued. The drug ddC also is associated with peripheral neuropathy as well as oral ulcers. Continue reading



What is HIV AIDS?

HIV stands for Human Immuno-deficiency Virus. It is responsible for causing AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) in humans. HIV belongs to the group of retrovirus. As this virus enters into the body, it starts destroying the cells of the immune system. In the meantime, the immune system tries to make new cells but gradually HIV destroys the capability of the body to fight infection and new cells formation. Without treatment, the immune system will become too weak to fight off illness and a person with HIV may develop rare infections or cancers. When these are particularly serious, the person is said to have AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).


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